(2003). Psychological and safety needs make up the bottom two tiers, and operate as the components of basic needs (Maslow, 1943). Modern-day slavery continues to grow and enslave people around the world. Stigmatization and labeling. Friends, family, and boyfriends: An analysis of relationship pathways into commercial sexual exploitation. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 48(Spring), 36-47. Early social work efforts at eliminating oppression of immigrants, women, and children were based in conflict theory, and efforts continue today through development of empowerment strategies for nondominant groups (Hutchison, 2013). Chapter 27: An integrated theoretical framework to describe human trafficking of young women and girls for involuntary prostitution. For an overview of the state of human trafficking across the world, see Laczko and Gozdziak, 2005. Human trafficking in the form of labor trafficking fulfills the need of cheap labor to create more profits; sex trafficking meets the demand for sex from johns and provides money or other things of value to pimps; child soldiers play various roles in meeting the needs of militant groups during armed conflict; and organ trafficking supplies a limited resource to an. (2016). The field of social work as a whole borrows theories from a number of fields including medicine, psychology, and sociology. The preoccupation with social change, moreover, prompted the early sociologists to conceive of developmental schemes to account for the transformation of society. The National Report on Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking America’s Prostituted Children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 90, pg 1-12. Chapter 3: Ecological models of health behavior. She still lives in a world where men feel entitled to use and abuse her for selfish gratification. Strangers to these Shores (10th Ed.). , J. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is one of the most basic theories of social work and informs much of the field’s practice. DOI: 10.1108/03684929610126283, Smith, L., Vardaman, S., & Snow, M. (2009). Level 9 Level 11. However, arguments against the use of general systems theory in social work have included concerns about the model not accounting for values and ideology as well as concerns about application of the model to the complexities of the human experience (Kondrat, 2013; Shriver, 1998). It also requires one to  examine the utility of human rights violations and their place in maintaining an equilibrium. Abstract . ), Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice (5th ed.) The document covers: the length the theories has been used; who developed each theory; how each theory ahs developed over time; how each theory is used for research and how the theories are used in organizations today; and how the theories are justified and practiced in businesses today. The social work profession utilizes theories from a variety of fields. They include the: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem (Bronfenbrenner, 1994). World Systems Theory was developed by Immanuel Wallerstein (1979). Figure A. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory, https://sites.google.com/site/dsmktylenda/content/bronfenbrenner-s-ecological-theory. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/202469.pdf. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory can be seen when evaluating risk factors for human trafficking and human rights violations. FEMINIST LEGAL THEORY AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE UNITED STATES: TOWARDS A NEW FRAMEWORK CYNTHIA L. WOLKEN* I. Shared Hope International. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. Critics of Maslow’s hierarchy state the model is too simplistic, and fails to account for cultural norms and drives (Gambrel & Cianci, 2003). In order to prevent human rights violations, however, it is important for social workers and other professionals to understand the need the violation fulfills and intervene at a point that prevents the need for the violation to occur. In J. Maddok (Ed.). It is iniquitous that third world countries can be exploited to such an extent. The United Nations is an organization put together in 1945 to replace the League of Nations. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2012.02.003. Clawson and colleagues (2003), completed a needs assessment for trafficking victims and agencies that provide services to victims. Oxford: Elsevier. Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a commercial transaction that involves the sexual exploitation of a child, such as the prostitution of children, child pornography, including live streaming sexual abuse, and the (often related) sale and trafficking of children. (noun) Theory asserting that most nations are part of a worldwide interdependent economic and political system based on the unequal exchange in the division of labor and allocation of resources between core nations, semi-peripheral nations, and peripheral nations. Sallis, J. F., & Owen, N. (2015). https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/amcrimlr52&i=227, http://www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.ohio-state.edu/stable/23038730, http://sharedhope.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/SHI_National_Report_on_DMST_2009.pdf, The Cause and Consequence of Human Trafficking: Human Rights Violations, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, Recognize common theories applied to human rights violations and human trafficking, Apply theories to understand intervention development strategies. The biologist credited with general systems theory is Bertalanffy, who was concerned about the practice of studying phenomena as isolated entities instead of players in feedback systems and hierarchical orders (Kondrat, 2013). Some would still argue this to be the case in modern times. And they do. Public Health – Social and Behavioral Health. Conflict theory explores power structures and power disparities–that is, how power differentials affect social inequality (Hutchison, 2013; Parillo, 2012; Rӧssel, 2013). Applying theory to understanding human rights is important because it ensures that scholars, activists, policymakers, and more are functioning under the same umbrella of understanding about the extant knowledge, context, and basic assumptions of a phenomenon; this allows us to work toward the same goal through unique disciplinary and interdisciplinary lenses without working backward in re-studying the same foundations. Theory allows human rights advocacy to continually move forward. Wallerstein agreed with the concept of less borders and more commonalities. Global economic inequality. A scientific theory of international relations leads us to expect the certain pattern that states to behave in predictable ways. Oxford Bibliographies in Sociology. (2012). Over the past decade, policy makers in the United States have begun to recognize human trafficking as a distinct act, rather than lumping trafficking into one of The British Journal of Social Work, 6(1), 23-42. Structural-functional theory or functional theory states that every part of a society serves a function in maintaining the solidarity and stability of the whole (Parillo, 2012). The systems that influence the individual in the social work perspective can be social or physical entities–family, culture, workplace, communities, etc. For intervention development and policy-making, theory gives a set of basic assumptions about societal and individual contexts that the interventions and policies must exist and work within. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory mostly replaced general systems theory in the late 1970s and early 1980s and is a continuation of understanding the person in environment (Kondrat, 2013). (1), 185-189. Maslow’s hierarchy is designed as a pyramid to showcase the importance of needs being met in order to reach optimal wellness. Journal of Education for Social Work, 13(3), 44-49. The social work understanding of general systems theory, much like the name suggests, is a theory based on understanding a system–a series of components that interact with and influence one another (Berg-Weger, 2005). Within conflict theory, wealthier classes are able to maintain power over lower-income and ethnic minority groups by allowing oppressed groups to believe that the advancement of another oppressed group will be to their detriment; therefore oppressed groups assist in the oppression of each other in the hopes that they will be the ones to advance (Parillo, 2012). Modified labeling theory is essentially the same as labeling theory, in which the labeling of an individual with a mental illness or as mentally ill often has a negative effect and causes social withdrawal (Crewe & Guyot-Diangone, 2016; Davis, Kurzban & Brekke, 2012).