Some claim the desire for closer integration is usually related to a larger desire for opening nation states to the outside world, or that regional economic cooperation is pursued as a means of promoting development through greater efficiency, rather than as a means of disadvantaging others. Against an international backdrop of changing political and economic priorities, Africa must plot a new course for its industrialisation and economic development, using the momentum of regional integration. Usually integration involves one or more written agreements that describe the areas of cooperation in detail, as well as some coordinating bodies representing the countries involved. Regional integration is the process by which two or more nation-states agree to co-operate and work closely together to achieve peace, stability and wealth. Usually integration involves one or more … The Advent of Trade Blocks tend to draw in some parity between high-income industrial countries and developing countries with a much lower income base in that they tend to serve as equal partners under such a system. Regional integration allows countries to overcome these costly divisions integrating goods, services and factors’ markets, thus facilitating the flow of trade, capital, energy, people and ideas. Some countries prefer regional cooperation to multilateral trade … Regional Integration For or Against Articles BUS 240 Regional Integration For and Against Articles “Regional Integration is a process in which states enter into a regional agreement in order to enhance regional cooperation through regional institutions and rules” (Babylon, 2011).Regional integration … Van Ginkel, H. and Van Langenhove, L: "Introduction and Context" in Hans van Ginkel, Julius Court and Luk Van Langenhove (Eds.). PAAR aims to "build trans-regional processes to develop the concept of “people’s integration”, articulate the development of new analyses and insights on key regional issues, expose the problems of neoliberal regional integration and the limits of the export-led integration model, share and develop joint tactics and strategies for critical engagement with regional integration processes as well as the development of people's alternatives."  The main objective of these agreements is to reduce trade barriers among those nations concerned, but the structure may vary from one agreement to another. This requires strengthening regional integration spaces, as well as international cooperation mechanisms. • Benefits of regional integration • The role of individuals, businesses and government in the integration process • The role of regional agencies in the integration process. 3-44 in Leon N. Lindberg and Stuart A. Scheingold (eds. " De Lombaerde and Van Langenhove describe it as a worldwide phenomenon of territorial systems that increases the interactions between their components and creates new forms of organization, co-existing with traditional forms of state-led organization at the national level. What is the Initiative People’s Agenda for Alternative Regionalisms? Bilateral and sub-regional trading arrangements have been advocated by governments as economic development tools, as they been designed to promote economic deregulation.  However, regional integration strategies as pursued by economic and national interests, particularly in the last 30 years, have also been highly contested across civil society. Intra-regional trade refers to trade which focuses on economic exchange primarily between countries of the same region or economic zone. In the wake of its historic anniversary, many have reflected on the Community's past achievements and future prospects.